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International Arabian Horse Association

IAHA Drugs/Medication ad hoc Study Committee, Appendix Table I

Our Charge: "Conduct an impartial study to determine which AHSA category best serves the Arabian Horse Breed -- No Foreign Substance or Therapeutic Substance Group"

Category

Name

Purpose

Short-term Effect ArabHorse/Breed

Long-term Effect ArabHorse/Breed

Other Comments

Antibiotics trimethoprim-sulfa
penicillins
aminoglycosides
Control bacterial infection Controls bacterial infection and aids in healing   Potential to hinder drug testing procedures
Nsaid’s
(Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
aspirin
flunixin meglumine
ketoprofen
meclofenamic acid
phenylbutazone
indomethacin
dipyrone
ketorolac (torodol)
1. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agents activity
2. Analgesic activity
1. Reduce inflammation, to aid the healing process
2. May allow the horse to continue the competition, even with the potentially damaging physical condition
1. High dosages and/or long-term usage may cause toxic effects on various body systems, especially the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract.
2. When used in "drug cocktails" possible adverse effects.
3. Drug effects potentiated by exercise and dehydration.
Horses under the influence of these drugs can show appearing to be sound; however, as the show ring is a place where breeding stock is often selected for mating or purchase, genetic defects which cause lameness can be masked, giving a false impression of the horse. 
See Note 1 following this table for more detailed information
Anabolic
Steroids
stanozolol
stilbestrol
testosterone
1. Increase lean body weight and enhance muscular growth
2. Promote stallion-like behavior
Can cause masculinization of females and premature physical development of males 1. Can cause adverse changes to young musculoskeletal structures.
2. Impaired reproductive function
1. Creates physical and/or mental appearance which does not genetically breed on.
Corticosteroids dexamethasone
prednisolone/ Prednisone
methylprednisone
triamcinolone
etc.
1. Anti-inflammatory activity
2. Suppress the immune system
1. Reduce inflammation to aid healing
2. Suppress allergic reactions
3. Alter the mood
1. "Open door" to infection by suppressed immune system
2. Possible laminitis
3. Delayed healing properties
 
Reproductive hormones progesterone Altranogest  Manipulate reproductive activity Alter mood by keeping mares out of "heat"
 
 
  Could influence breeding selection decisions by indicating a disposition different from the genetically- inherited trait.
cont. estrogen
testosterone 
Manipulate reproductive activity 1. Alter the mood
2. Alter "mental toughness"
Alter physical phenotype (appearance different than genetics, genotype, would determine) Could influence breeding selection decisions by indicating a disposition different from the genetically-inherited trait.
Stimulants cocaine
caffeine
ephedrine
epinephrine
amphetamines
1. Stimulation of CNS
2. Stimulate the sympathetic nervous system
1. Alter disposition
2. Increase performance
"Addictive-effect" possible Gives an "altered view" of animal
Local irritants ginger
iodine
irritant When used to alter natural tail carriage, causes extreme discomfort for the horse Alters physical phenotypical expression and appearance Could influence breeding selection decisions by indicating appearance which is different from the genetically inherited physical tail carriage.
This can cause the horse to become cautious about its hindquarter. Could result in kicking, etc.
Sedatives
Tranquilizers
acepromazine
detoraidine
diazepam (Valium)
methocarbamol
phenobarbital
phenytoin
xylazine
1. Used to sedate
2. Analgesic effects
1. Alter disposition--the perception of fatigue for performance
2. Decrease performance
  "Alters view" and affects performance
cont. propanolol  Used to sedate by affecting blood pressure Alter disposition--the perception of fatigue    
Antidepressants tricyclic        
Narcotics morphine
butorphanol
oxymorphone
pentazocine
Pain relief 1. Pain relief
2. "Euphoric" state possible
  May be used to mask painful physical condition
Local Anesthetics lidocaine
Novacaine
mepivacaine
Block nerve stimuli--diagnostic use Block pain sensation   Allows horses with severe pain to compete
Hormones ACTH Stimulates adrenal glands Suppress immune system 1. "Opens door" to infection by the suppressed immune system
2. Possible laminitis
3. Delayed healing properties
May alter disposition
cont. thyroxine Replace thyroid gland production deficits Increase basal metabolism and energy level   May alter the overall attitude and personality of the horse

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